The first part of my contribution will be an analysis of the development of the scientific publishing pattern of Norway 2011-2020 based on complete metadata covering all public research organizations in the country. By 2020, most journal articles are published with Open Access. The second part will show how this development in one country mirrors the general development at the global level. An analysis of the development in the Directory of Open Access journals (DOAJ) will show an immense growth in the volume of publications and, at the same time, a concentration of market power among multinational journal publishers operating within DOAJ with journals requiring APC. An analysis of the major publishers’ subscription-based journals outside of DOAJ will demonstrate that most of these journals are now hybrid, demanding both subscriptions and APC, and that they represent the same concentration of market power. The third part of my contribution will be a critical discussion of how the development has affected research quality and the resources available for performing research. I will also discuss how the situation might be improved.
KEYWORDS: Article Processing Charge; DOAJ; Hybrid journals; Multinational journal publishers; Research quality.